Advancement in composite joining methods is needed. Adhesive bonds are already inherent to composite materials at the laminate level where plies are bonded. Joining composite structure through bonding could minimize or completely replace mechanical fastening methods; however, there currently exists no way to validate the integrity of the bond. To realize aircraft design of primary structure using adhesive bonding, the structural integrity must be ensured throughout the service life.
The Army desires an inspection technique capable of detecting any degradation of bondline strength due to combined loading and environmental effects such as temperature and moisture. Previous efforts of Hennige and Cribbs have explored ultrasonic inspection methods which generate pulse amplitudes that produce strains just below the accepted bond strength. A drawback of this approach is the destructive effect on strength degraded bonds.
A truly non-destructive solution is sought which will not degrade the load carrying ability of structure. Possible directions for solutions that can achieve the desired state may include in-situ monitoring methods which have potential for manufacturability, light weight, and reliability.
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Another avenue for a solution may be a rapid inspection technique to be used with existing maintenance inspections, while remaining cognizant of life-cycle cost associated with the tradeoffs in maintenance and benefits from bondline design. Solutions should be consistent with the Armys desired maintenance free operating period concept and have enough fidelity to ensure bond integrity, and ultimately structural integrity, between inspections. This phase should determine limitations of material system, limitations to joint types, limitations for size resolution, limitations to geometric configuration, and precision tolerances of fracture energy for proposed bondline inspection method.
At the end of Phase I the Offeror shall perform proof-of-concept testing to show that system can non-destructively inspect a bondline for meeting the minimum threshold for strength. This phase should test a variety of materials and joint configurations with good and poor quality bonding to build confidence in the inspection method as a universal solution.
Verify detection of any degradation of bondline strength due to environmental effects. Provide analytical and experimental verification that inspection technique has sufficient fidelity probability of detection and confidence to ensure structural integrity of bondline between inspection periods. This phase should develop a prototype device as a deliverable. A successful Phase II will provide evidence that the technology is promising for both use in field applications and in manufacturing quality assurance. A business case analysis should be conducted. Single or multiple product development will include design of user-interface and software verification and validation.
Fully characterize the inspection reliability, including probability of detection and confidence interval. Long-life is defined as a minimum of three years of useful life and an objective of five years of useful life; shelf-stable refers to the ability to remain viable in diverse environments. Currently fielded composite repair materials have limited life and shelf stability; six to eighteen months is the useful life of currently fielded composite repair technology, dependent on storage conditions.
While this composite repair technique proved functional in a laboratory setting, the materials are neither long-life nor shelf-stable. Limited life and shelf stability negatively impact operational availability and maintenance costs; wet layup laminating resins and paste adhesives which are both long-life and shelf-stable are desired. Proof of concept testing shall be performed to demonstrate the strength, stiffness, and weight efficiency of the wet layup laminating resin and paste adhesive when compared to currently fielded resins and paste adhesives.
Additionally, environmental testing, such as testing defined in MIL-STDG, shall be performed to verify long-life and shelf-stability of the wet layup laminating resin and paste adhesive. Required deliverables for this phase shall be a project management plan, progress reports, and a final report. The final report shall document the scientific methodology underlying the concept, anticipated benefits, and lessons learned. Additionally, the final report shall include a cost analysis of the developed technology solution compared to currently fielded resins and paste adhesives.
The composite repair methodology and procedure shall be documented such that independent verification and validation by a third party can be accomplished. Other required deliverables for this phase shall be a project management plan, progress reports, test plans, composite repair samples for independent testing, and a final report. The final report shall document the Phase 2 effort in detail, lessons learned, and the future plan for commercializing the developed technology solution. Consideration shall be given to improving manufacturing readiness level, generation of material allowables through testing, and generation of bonded joint analysis methodology.
The vision for long-life, shelf-stable, wet layup laminating resins and paste adhesives is to address the issue of rapidly expiring composite repair materials while enabling fielded composite repairs in diverse environments. Bonded Repair Technology for Aging Aircraft.
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Develop a software tool that will check instrumentation data collected from an integrated mission system to see if the observed system behaviors of an integrated mission system conforms to required and allowed behaviors defined in an Architectural Analysis and Design Language AADL model of the integrated aviation software and hardware mission system. System integration testing currently depends largely on tests that are manually created from structured natural language specifications augmented with engineering annotations and diagrams.
Confirming that the test results are correct is also a manually-intensive and error-prone process. A variety of existing analyses can be used verify and validate these aviation mission system models during the early development phase. However, methods and supporting tools are needed to provide assurance that as-built integrated aviation mission systems comply with their requirements specified in an architecture-level model. Note that it is expected that future mission system requirements can and will be captured in architectural models.
Model-based testing of a physical instance of an integrated aviation mission system referred to as the System Under Test or SUT are tests that are done on the SUT to see if it conforms to its specification model. Model-based testing of integrated aviation mission systems poses some difficult challenges. Controllability and observability of such systems may be limited. An example is model-based checking of flight test data of the realized system, where the available data is limited by the capabilities of onboard instrumentation, and the test inputs are outside the control of the model-based testing tools.
A primary goal of this effort is a tool that checks to see if available observation data conforms to behaviors required and allowed by the specification model. The supplied capability should not be limited to tests generated only by the supplied tools, the tools should be usable with existing test suites i. The goal is not a new controllability or instrumentation capability; solutions should adapt to existing test execution and instrumentation capabilities with minimal intrusiveness and effort.
Proposers should define metrics to be used to determine tool coverage and thoroughness as part of their proposal e. The tool should minimize the assumptions and requirements placed on the instrumentation in the SUT so that it can be used with a variety of instrumentation and testbed capabilities.
At the architectural level, many defects are due to inconsistencies between the protocols used by different components that interact with each other. Many defects are due to incorrect coordination of system modes such as start-up, recovery, or operating modes. The tool should check for protocol inconsistencies, mis-coordination of system modes of operation, and timing defects. Instrumentation data is collected at multiple different points in an aviation mission system.
The content and format used for instrumentation data and the degree to which causality and temporal relationships are captured or can be inferred may vary. Some events of interest may not be captured e. The tool should be adaptable to handle variability in the available instrumentation data such as with word formats and sampling rates. The tool should provide features to manage large amounts of instrumentation data collected from a large and complex system. Assess scalability to very large data sets for large and complex models and systems. Assess the likelihood of false positive and false negative results and evaluate tool capabilities to deal with these cases.
Performers are expected to provide example models and instrumentation data for the Phase I demonstration. These would include verifying properties of the integrated system related to safety and security. Demonstrate and evaluate the tool using data collected from an instrumented distributed real-time system e.
Implement features that allow the tool to be adapted to a range of SUTs and a variety of instrumentation formats and capabilities. Optimize relative to a proposed set of performance, usability, etc. Success for phase II will include ensuring that scalability can be achieved. Test will be conducted using data sets and models that are representative of large and complex aviation mission systems to prove scalability. Also, the tools will be evaluated against a government defined set of quality metrics.
Commercial application: A similar tool would benefit commercial vehicles such as civil aviation and automotive. Success will include transitioning to a product of use to industry and government. Wiener, Jeffrey C. Mogul, Mehul A. Given an architecture description language model specified in the SAE AS Architecture Analysis and Design Language AADL of a mission system and an overall federation of simulations, provide a suite of tools to analyze that model to assure important quality metrics such as performance, timing, latency, safety, security and interface compatibility and automatically generate the configuration data needed to assemble and execute the overall federated simulation.
The tool suite should provide a capability that allows collaborating organizations to assemble and test fly aviation mission systems in various configurations and stages of development in simulated aviation mission scenarios. There are increasing demands to create a larger variety of configurations quickly, for example for equipment evaluation and training exercises. Strict requirements e. However, it is a challenge to integrate a mixture of live equipment and simulations with these protocols.
What is needed is a model-based approach to specify, integrate, and verify heterogeneous SIL and SoS simulations that include aviation mission systems during the early development and evaluation phases. Creating this capability requires a selection and extension of existing tools together with some new model based tool development. The generated federated behavior configuration should include runtime communication characteristics of each federated component, such as messaging frequencies and latencies, inter-federate dependencies, messaging paradigm s , and processing rates and latencies.
This capability will reduce the cost of system integration testing in a SIL or distributed simulation environment by reducing operator and participant downtime during configuration. This capability will increase the validation of early equipment prototypes using simulated use cases and increase the availability of tailored aviation training simulations by making such SoS federations more affordable. AADL is an industry standard means for describing the components of a real-time system and how they are integrated to form an overall system, which is applicable to the defense market and beyond.
The tools developed on this effort should be compatible with existing AADL analysis tools such as security, timing, and interface consistency to provide assurance that the configured system will behave as defined in the architectural specification. For example, by leveraging security analyses of the AADL model with automated configuration and verification, it should be possible to demonstrate that the overall simulation satisfies the security requirements for specific exercises. Success for phase I will include demonstration of the generation of configuration for the simulation and verification of the specification of that simulation against the architecture model defined in AADL.
Success will include the development and demonstration of a workflow that generates a configuration from AADL, exercises it using a federated simulation framework, and verifies requirements stated in an AADL model of the architecture for the simulated system. Medical Device manufacturers are also starting to use AADL to describe their systems, which also have a mix of hard and soft real-time requirements and for which there is demand for early-phase pre-clinical-trial evaluation using simulations.
Efficiency and power density should be high without compromising any transient responses due to fluctuations in the source, load, or environment. Technologies are being addressed at all fronts - from material to component, converter, control, system architecture, and integration technology - to constantly improve the performance of the power-electronic systems.
Progress being made in the design and development of tunable components utilizing magneto-electric materials with low loss and wide bandwidth indicates a potential for dramatic improvements in the efficiency and further reduction in the size of components, especially in field tunable inductors and transformers. The observation that higher switching frequency would lead to smaller and lighter systems has driven technological advances in power materials and components.
The core loss of the new materials needs to be at least about eleven times lower than that of 4F1 , one of the better magnetic materials NiZn currently being utilized. Winding loss also needs to be scaled proportionately, and heat needs to be distributed efficiently. Therefore, magnetic geometries that can be optimized to achieve low winding loss and uniform heat distribution are sought . The choice of inductance affects the shapes of currents throughout the converter and, hence, converter losses.
There is an optimal profile of inductance versus load current that minimizes system loss, resulting in less weight imposed by heat sinks and batteries. Such profile can be realized if the non-textured magnetization  in the core of a conventional inductor is replaced by a textured magnetization. Profiles of inductance versus input voltage or switching frequency can also be synthesized to maximize the efficiency.
Tunability of textured magnetization offers another degree of freedom for this optimization. Texturing implies orientation of the grains along the specific crystallographic axis ,. Textured tunable inductors and transformers can substantially improve the efficiency of the power conversion circuits and result in high density integration. This technology along with creative engineering approaches will lead to the development of a new class of battlefield electronics pushing the limits of size and weight. Identify magnetic geometries amenable to the synthesis of the required inductance profile, and develop methodologies for texturing and tuning the core materials to achieve the desired magnetization profile versus load, input, or frequency variations.
Identify key requirements for validating the tunable components, and address performance trade-offs, limitations and compatibility issues. Required Phase I deliverables will include all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing. Demonstrate textured material manufacturing capability e. Perform comparative analysis of the new power converter architecture with respect to the traditional designs in terms of efficiency, weight and size. Required Phase II deliverables will include textured and tunable inductors and transformers, and a working prototype of the power converter for independent evaluation by Army, all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing.
Provide complete engineering and test documentation for the development of manufacturing prototypes. Explore the utilization of this technology not only for the efficiency of power electronics converters, but also for the development of other new power processing methodologies for weapon systems. Phase III application for army missile systems could include miniaturization of electronics in legacy programs as well as incorporation into emerging programs.
Lee and Q. Ramachandran, M. Nymand and N. Reusch and J. Power Electron. Cui, K. Ngo, J. Moss, M. Lim and E. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics," in Nature, vol. Ma, J. Hu, Z. Li, and C. Nan, "Recent progress in multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: from bulk to thin films," in Adv. The precision required to provide the necessary lethality against these threats leads to interceptors using increasingly sophisticated acquisition sensors, seekers and fire control technology.
The increasing technological sophistication rapidly drives increased interceptor cost. The key is to control interceptor cost by developing affordable, alternative nonconventional robust engagement capabilities. These alternative concepts include, but may not be limited to, leader-follower guided missiles, collaborative or cooperative guided missile engagements with multiple interceptors, learning algorithms for guidance of multiple missile interceptors, and optimization of multiple guided missiles for distributed lethality. These advanced guidance techniques are especially useful for multiple reasons.
These include, but are not limited to, conditions: 1. The use of analysis and simulation needs to be applied to illustrate and quantify performance of proposed approaches. A budget of error sources that impact miss distance must be developed and performance of a sensitivity analysis to assess critical sources of error shall be conducted. It is important to address other performance issues that are unique to the architecture. The conceptual architecture must be supported by research efforts to verify that it is superior to alternative concepts. The conceptual architecture must be composed of functional elements or subsystems defined by their input, function and output.
Examples of functions, elements or subsystems may include, but not be limited to, surveillance, target acquisition, target tracking, sensor-to-interceptors communication, interceptor-to-interceptor communication, engagement algorithms, and interceptor guidance to support mission objectives. Completion of Phase I shall result in the definition of alternative concepts and selection of best concepts based on cost-benefit metrics. A sufficiently detailed system simulation shall quantify the performance of the architecture to optimize engagement with affordable, robust engagement algorithms.
Completion of Phase II shall result in a definition of multiple interceptor engagement algorithms, quantification of the engagement concept with a detailed system simulation and a plan for transition to a full-scale missile flight demonstration. Alternative robust guidance concepts emerging from this SBIR effort can be transitioned to integration contractors for flight test and demonstration.
Even during missile tests where the launch window is flexible, launch under clear sky conditions is not always possible. During engagement, the choice of environmental conditions is even more limited. The problem is further exacerbated in ballistic missile defense BMD where response to threats must be swift regardless of environmental conditions. A lack of understanding of the effects of weather on BMD assets translates to a lack of operational response capability.
The purpose of this effort is to identify the process for end-to-end BMD mission planning and engagement response in adverse weather conditions. Part of the current gap in state of the art weather-capable technologies is in assessing and predicting real-time environmental conditions in theater. While satellite data is globally available, spatial and temporal resolutions may not be appropriate for short range systems. Conversely, in forward operating areas, high resolution weather data from weather radars may not be readily available.
This topic seeks solutions for the acquisition of appropriate, fieldable weather data sources of character appropriate for BMD systems. To predict system weather vulnerability, weather information will be required at future times. Modern physics-based forecasting requires specialization in skill and resources, and is not practical in forward operating areas. This topic seeks pragmatic, validated forecasting solutions that will run in resource constrained environments.
Ballistic missile defense strives for the earliest possible intercept requiring systems to go faster and farther . Increased speed and prolonged time in precipitation environments increases risk to the system hardware and, hence, the mission. The problem is largely a materials issue where the combination of aeroheating, aerodynamics forces, and impact of atmospheric particulates removes material from radomes and control surfaces .
The resulting effect is a reduction on sensor and flight stability performance. As flight speeds increase beyond the capability of ground testing facilities, modeling and simulation is required to fully understand the performance effects of realistic flight conditions and fill the gap between ground data and flight test data .
The work in this SBIR effort should identify a modeling and simulation solution resulting in a weather vulnerability assessment model appropriate for BMD systems in an operational setting. Phase I should identify a process for validating the vulnerability models. Proposed solutions to the BMD weather vulnerability assessment process should consider the end user and how the final product will be used. The Phase II effort should conclude with an Army relevant demonstration showing mission planning and engagement scenarios such as weapon place placement, asset selection, optimal intercept path, and probability of kill prediction.
Identify the process for computing the effects in an operational setting, and how outputs will be used in tactical mission planning. Develop a plan for implementing the approach in Phase II. The expected outcome of the Phase II effort is a prototype demonstrating the tools and technologies required for weather vulnerability assessment in tactical mission planning.
Validation should be performed where possible and feasible under the Phase II. Where validation is not performed, define the requirements and develop a plan for validating the technology in a Phase III. Environmental characterization may extend beyond precipitation to atmospheric sand and dust conditions as well. Harris, Daniel C.
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Fetterhoff, T. Canberra, Australia. Tattleman, P, and D. Currently, shaped charge SC and explosively formed penetrator EFP warheads possess a much higher penetration capability but a narrow spray angle. Both SC and EFP are explosive charges shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy with SC having more penetration but limited standoff distance and EFP characterized by less penetration but much more standoff distance.
To be effective, the key is to get the right combination of penetration and spray angle. Limited experimentation was performed using two liners: the first made of copper material and the second made of zirconium. Overall, these tests showed that the prove-out concept worked. Modeling and simulation of the shaped charge liners indicated that a variety of warhead performance variables associated with these charges can be controlled through the use of multiple materials, reactive materials, an ultrafine microstructure, or an axial or transverse gradient design.
In the case of shaped charges, research has shown that jet stability, jet velocity tip and tail , jet cross-sectional shape, and other variables can be optimized by selectively using different materials for the different regions of the warhead. The goal of this effort will be a warhead capable of penetrating 1-in. Appropriate warhead design, high rate performance, and manufacturability will all be demonstrated as part of this work. Fabricate test coupons and conduct high strain rate materials characterization to determine the rate dependent stress strain response of materials followed by metallurgical characterization.
The requirement calls for the delivery of at least two 2 samples to the US Army for independent characterization. The processing technology will be scaled up to be able to fabricate 25 identical shaped charges for each material geometric details will be provided for the successful design.
This will be followed by a thorough metallurgical characterization and high strain rate evaluation of these materials. Finally, prototypes will be fabricated from the most promising concept, loaded and tested. For weaponization, further optimization will be required in tactical configurations. To further exploit the benefits of the developed technology, form partnerships with other manufacturers for applications to the private sector such as the oil well and construction industries in which shaped charges are used to break, crack, or drill holes in rocks. This technology can also be leveraged for mining applications as well as applications in submarine blasting, breaking log jams, breaking ice jams, initiating avalanches, timber or tree cutting, the perforation of arctic sea-ice or permafrost, glacier blasting, ice breaking, and underwater demolition.
Proceedings from the 18th International Ballistics Symposium. These rounds are fired at proving grounds and training ranges in the United States and around the world. In addition, special forces conduct day and night training exercises utilizing these training rounds. These rounds include low velocity 40mm grenades; 60mm, 81mm, and mm mortars; shoulder launched munitions; mm tank rounds; and mm artillery rounds. The projectiles, and in some circumstances the cartridge cases and sabot petals, are either left on the ground surface or several feet underground at the proving ground or tactical range.
Components of current training rounds require hundreds of years or more to biodegrade. Further, civilians e. Proving grounds and battle grounds have no clear way of finding and eliminating these training projectiles, cartridge cases and sabot petals, especially those that are buried several feet in the ground.
Some of these rounds might have the potential corrode and pollute the soil and nearby water. The solution sought by this topic is naturally occurring biodegradable material to replace the current training round materials, eliminating environmental hazards. This SBIR will prove out the technology and replace current training round components with biodegradable parts. The biodegradable materials identified can be utilized by private industry to manufacture biodegradable water bottles, plastic containers, or any other composite or plastic product s on the market today.
This SBIR effort will make use of seeds to grow environmentally friendly plants that remove soil contaminants and consume the biodegradable components developed under this project. Animals should be able to consume the plants without any ill effects. These Training rounds shall meet all the performance requirements of existing training rounds.
The contractor should also explore avenues to produce biodegradable composites with remediation seeds for use in products outside the defense sector. Provide a sufficient number of prototypes for the government to perform ballistic tests. Sahari, J. Sci 30, no. Reddy, Narendra. Ochi, Shinji. Mathew, Aji P. The precision delivery of the non-kinetic effects NKE electronics payload close to the target allows low power operation which limits the geographical extent of impacted systems, and reduces the overall impact on the electromagnetic spectrum.
The initial design will fit in a mm projectile, with a transition path for size reduction to allow incorporation of multiple NKE submunitions per projectile. Integrate the NKE system into an appropriate munitions platform. Explore, implement and demonstrate advanced non-kinetic attack techniques. Develop test methods and evaluate the system performance in the field. Develop a commercialization plan to transition the electronics subsystems to industry and relevant users. Private Sector Commercialization Potentials: The final NKE electronics system will support a number of commercial communications protocols.
The ruggedized, hardened electronics subsystem may be transitioned to a wide variety of industrial and civil applications that call for operation in extremely harsh environments. Carlucci, R. Pellen, J. Pritchard, W. Demassi,October ," U. Salim, MIT, June While the energy density of SCs is better than that of conventional capacitors, it is still an order of magnitude lower than that of battery technology.
While there has been continuous improvement in the electrode materials to increase the energy and power densities, room exists for optimization of the electrolyte to achieve energy densities closer to the theoretical limits [1, ]. Also, recent research suggests that by using nanomaterials the capacitance, power and energy densities can be ehnanced .
Electrolytes play a crucial role in determining the operational temperatures because ionic conductivity at low temperatures and flammability at high temperatures are the limiting issues. Thus, developing safer electrolytes that perform over a wide temperature range is a critical need. In this regard, deep eutectic solvents DESs appear as potential low cost alternatives to ionic liquids as electrolytes [7, 8]. Low-temperature ionic conductivity must not affected significantly while increasing the operational temperature. Design approaches would include varying the eutectic compositions to achieve liquid phase over the operational temperature range and low viscous solvents to enhance the ionic conductivities, particularly at low temperatures.
Parameters such as ionic conductivity, viscosity, and electrochemical stability will be the variables to consider in the design space. Experimental verification of the optimum design of the electrolyte will be demonstrated. Methods for large scale synthesis of the electrode materials will be explored.
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The results will be benchmarked against existing conventional supercapacitor materials. A more robust SC technology will allow for faster setting of these rounds in the battlefield thereby improving safety and efficiency of the soldier; allow more time between setting of the round and firing, affording the soldier in the battlefield more flexibility; and an enhanced ability of the rounds to operate across greater temperature extremes with improved reliability.
Halper and J. Chen, R. Ramachandran, V. Mani and R. Saraswathi, Recent advancements in electrode materials for the high performance electrochemical supercapacitors: A review, Int. Xiong, C. Meng, R. Reifenberger, P.
Irazoqui and T. Fisher, A review of graphene based electrochemical micro-supercapacitors, Electroanalysis, 26, , Meyyappan, Nanostructured materials for supercapacitors, J. A 31, , Abbott, D. Boothby, G. Capper, D. Davies and R. Rasheed, Deep eutectic solvents formed between choline chloride and carboxylic acids: Versatile alternatives to ionic liquids, J.
Abbott, G. With the proliferation of these devices comes increased security concerns for both military and civilian facilities. UAVs may be repurposed to gather intelligence, engage in attacks, threaten military and civilian air assets, and to conduct criminal activities. In addition, UAV developers and hobbyists have the ability to rapidly modify the UAV configuration with inexpensive and widely available off the shelf technology to extend communication distances, allow for autonomous flight, and increase flight time.
Taken together, UAVs represent a rapidly evolving threat to targets throughout the world. Countermeasure systems have been developed by industry and government organizations that include interfering with RF communications between the controller and device, overriding commands, applying directed energy weapons, and disabling systems with munitions. Each type of countermeasure technique has characteristic effectiveness, risks to warfighters, collateral damage, and costs. In order for the warfighter to determine the best countermeasure for a given scenario, information about the intent of the UAS is needed.
Cost-effective, innovative multispectral tripod mounted systems are needed to provide information to the warfighter to make an informed decision as to whether a countermeasure should be deployed and what type is best to defeat a threatening UAS. The effort will develop methods, hardware, and software to provide the warfighter with sufficient information on the intent and threat level of an incoming UAS to make countermeasure decisions.
Hardware may include RF sensors, cameras, and other devices that provide information to a software system that determines threat level and intent. This research provides the first demonstration of a small, low cost, flexible, multispectral system capable of surveillance, detection and tracking UAVs and geo-locating the ground operator. Designs should include all proposed concepts of operation, analysis, hardware and software subsystems, capabilities, and methods of validating the system. The end system should be tripod mountable for easy man portable deployment.
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The software for determining intent and threat level should be designed for an open architecture and plug and play, allowing for competitive software development and easy integration. Mature the intent and threat level software in an open architecture. The final system can be provided to federal, state, and local government organizations as well as industry to determine intent of incoming UAS threats. Examples include police departments, port authority, and private sector industries that are concerned with enemy surveillance or espionage.
The offeror can forge relationship with UAS countermeasure providers to develop end to end systems. Additionally, the system can be repurposed to evaluate the intent and threat level of other aerial and ground systems of interest. Army has a requirement for a shaped charge warhead that can maintain its penetration capability while spinning. Shaped charged liner jet formation can be adversely affected by spinning because the angular momentum of the jet particles has the tendency to spread radially, making the jet hollow and greatly reducing its penetration capabilities.
In the past, efforts were made to compensate the spinning effects by using fluted liners. However, the fluted liners proved to be too complex to manufacture and were only effective for a particular spin rate. The key was to develop an entirely new concept that could effectively reduce the spin effects. The causes of spin compensation can be mechanical in nature or can be due to microstructural issues such as texture, residual stress, grain size, and morphology variations.
Several methods including material design, processing, and composition have been devised to modify the shaped charge liner to reduce or eliminate the detrimental effect of spin on penetration. Perform at least 6 tests for each concept for penetration into the RHA Rolled Homogeneous Armor steel and 6 jet characterization JC tests for each concept for non-spinning and spinning conditions.
Fusing and initiation scheme, weight, and CG shall remain the same. To further exploit the benefits of the developed technology, the offeror should form partnerships with other manufacturers for private sector applications, such as the oil well and construction industries, that employ shaped charges to break, crack, or drill holes in rocks. This technology can also be leveraged for mining applications, submarine blasting, breaking log jams, breaking ice jams, initiating avalanches, timber cutting, the perforation of arctic sea ice or permafrost, glacier blasting, ice breaking, and underwater demolition.
Patent, 3,, This process is critical to the reliability required of precision-guided artillery projectiles. Component test modules typically replace the warhead assembly of the projectile. The projectile is otherwise configured with the objective components and assemblies, allowing for a fullup, ballistically similar operational function when fired from an objective artillery platform. The parachute assembly will likely need multiple stages and timing mechanisms to accomplish the required impact conditions.
The impact under the parachute is significantly less than that experienced at gun launch and would not damage or affect the integrity of the components or the system upon impact. If the proposed device becomes readily available, reliable, and inexpensive, it will significantly reduce cost and shorten the development of complex artillery munitions.
No other means exists to gun fire and recover parts and components in this fashion. Proposer will conduct a full up operational test firing from a 1st quarter tube mm Howitzer conducted at Yuma Proving Ground. Rounds will be fired at mils quadrant elevation, but this elevation could vary depending upon range impact area availability.
The eventual potential use of this technology would be immense and cross cutting.
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Quantities would be in the tens of thousands, considering use in virtually all US development and production precision munition programs as well as foreign applications. The module typically replaces the warhead assembly of the projectile. If readily available, reliable, and inexpensive, this tool will allow lower cost and shortened development of complex artillery munitions. Because this module will represent a significant reduction in the development timeline for precision artillery and because no means exists to gun fire and recover parts and components in this fashion, the potential market for this technology will be immense and cross cutting.
Pritchard, and W. Bukowski, Gary L. Katulka, and Philip Peregino. Patent H1, , issued June 4, Electronic components for high-g hardened packaging. Army in clothing and equipment have historically been broad spectrum to effectively kill not only bacteria, but also fungi. Certain fungal organisms cause a variety of quality of life and medical issues for Warfighters, including athletes foot and jock itch. Three species of fungi are responsible for the majority of skin irritation and infections: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum 1,2.
In certain operational environments, Warfighters are exposed to increased risk factors for fungal infection including hot and humid ambient weather, poor skin hygiene, and close-quarter living 3. It is likely that most conditions resulting from fungal growth and infection are largely unreported to medical personnel and are therefore undocumented and sometimes untreated, potentially leading to further complications.
In addition to medical conditions that affect the Warfighter, there is also anecdotal information regarding fungal and mold issues on stored equipment tentage, clothing stored in warehouses in environments with increased temperatures and humidity. The goal of this topic is to develop biologically-derived antifungal compounds i.
Healthy skin is colonized by consortia of not only bacteria, but fungi as well, primarily Malassezia spp, Candida, and Cryptococcus spp 4. For the purposes of this topic, the antifungal technology must selectively kill Trichophyton spp. Additional species of fungi and mold could also be targeted beyond Trichophyton spp and Epidermophyton floccosum, including those which become harmful with significant growth on textiles e. The antifungal technology must have no effect on normal commensal skin bacteria including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus and Propionibacteria, as well as commensal fungi such as Malassezia furfur.
Assess scalability and cost-effectiveness of the production approach. Demonstrate reproducible, selective antifungal efficacy against multiple strains of Trichophyton spp. The fungistatic or fungicidal application must be durable and reproducibly maintain efficacy after laundering for 20 cycles according to AATCC Dimensional Changes of Fabrics During Laundering. The finished fabric must not present an environmental or health hazard i.
Demonstrate that the treated fabric does not exhibit cytotoxicity or hemolytic activity in vitro. Demonstrate that the application does not produce any negative effects due to prolonged direct skin contact in an acute dermal irritation study and a skin sensitization study conducted on laboratory animals. Assess scalability and cost-effectiveness of the production approach and utilization on textiles including, but not limited to, parameters such as storage stability, reapplication needs, and durability.
Additionally, a minimum of 3 sq. Moreover, antifungal compounds with selective killing action will prevent complications inherent with broad-spectrum compounds used for reduction and treatment of athletes foot and jock itch.
The civilian sector would also significantly benefit from the developed technology in the medical and athletic markets, where targeted antifungals would reduce irritation and infection by incorporation into socks, sandals, undergarments and athletic apparel. Targeted antifungals could also be incorporated into wound dressings and medical wipes. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Military.
J Royal Army Med Corps. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences. By exploiting the magneto-electric coupling between the electric and magnetic order parameters in a layered structure of thin films of a piezoelectric and of a magneto-restrictive material, the magnetic properties of the structure can be controlled electrically, offering the potential for magnetic thin film devices which can be integrated with RF radio frequency and microwave integrated circuits without the requirement for large external magnetic fields [refs.
The goal of this topic is the development of a fabrication process for uniform extrinsic multi-ferroic thin films strain- or field- induced coupled multiple layers of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic films which can be applied in the fabrication of tunable microwave devices, and which is compatible with industry standard silicon CMOS fabrication foundries. The fabrication of high crystalline quality films has generally required high-temperature, and often high-vacuum, deposition techniques [see for example refs.
In order for the films to be compatible with industrial scale silicon CMOS foundry fabrication, a lower temperature deposition technology, such as atomic layer deposition ALD , sputtering, or spin-spray deposition, is required. Spin-spray and spray pyrolysis deposition of high quality ferromagnetic thin films has been demonstrated for Ni ferrite and NiZn ferrite films [see for example refs. Among the challenges are defect mitigation, environmental stability, and compatibility with silicon CMOS processing. In addition to high quality film growth, magnetic and electrical properties of the films, and the magnetic-electrical coupling, the effect of the substrate see for example ref.
Determine dielectric loss tangent for the films separated from the substrate. Determine remnant and maximum polarization and coercive field of the ferroelectric film and saturation polarization of the magnetic film. Demonstrate a test varactor structure using the ferroelectric film and determine the quality factor Q and capacitance tuning range for bias voltages below 35 volts at 1 GHz, and measurements of the piexoelectric coefficient using either double beam laser interferometer or extracting from measured strain deflection of a cantilever.
Compare these metrics with published results for the specific film materials chosen. The deposition process and any post-deposition processing must be compatible with CMOS processing. In general, this will require the initial film deposition and subsequent processing steps including any annealing to be at temperatures below degrees C.
Deliver samples of the above described films for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the results of measurements of film quality, film loss tangents, remnant polarization, saturation polarization, and piezo-magnetic coefficient for the films described above. Deliver sample of the varactor test structure described above for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report of the quality factor Q and capacitance tuning ranges of the varactor test structure described above.
Deliver a report documenting the model for the heterostructure described above and the demonstration of feasibility of electrical control of magnetization, as described above. See refs. Assess, through physical and device modeling and simulation, opportunities for improvements in the performance of microwave devices enabled by this new process examples provided in the topic description and improvements in deposition rate which can make the process competitive with physical, chemical vapor, and chemical solution based fabrication processes.
Design and demonstrate the performance of tunable extrinsic multi-ferroic microwave devices using this new process. Refine the thin film process to take full advantage of the compositional control eg. Investigate novel techniques to speed the growth of the film while maintaining low temperature deposition and high quality crystal properties. Develop and evaluate a model of a manufacturing scalable process involving both deposition technologies.
If the deposition of the piezoelectric film requires a different deposition process than the deposition of the piezomagnetic film, these processes should be integrated in an industrial scalable fabrication system. Demonstrate a technology transition pathway to manufacturing for practical products. Deliver samples of the CMOS-compatible, multi-layer, multi-ferroic structures on silicon substrates, as described above, for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the fabrication and measurements of leakage current density, magneto-electric coupling coefficient, film quality, and loss tangent.
Deliver a report documenting the opportunities for improvement in device performance and the processing deposition rate. Deliver device samples for evaluation in government laboratories. Deliver a report documenting the model for a manufacturing scalable process and for a transition pathway to practical device fabrication.
All of these business strategies will require the demonstration of competitive microwave devices and integrated circuits or approaches. All will require the design and actual fabrication and test of demonstration sample devices and IC's. This deposition process will enable thin film voltage tunable devices and thin film devices with functionality currently only practically available in large magnetic structures.
Further research in Phase III needs to scale the fabrication process to 6 inch wafers. By providing a Si CMOS compatible multi-ferroic thin film process, this research can be expected to bring greater functionality at reduced size, weight, and cost to critical military and important commercial wireless systems, with improvements in bandwidth efficiency, fidelity, and security. This process would be expected to provide the capability to integrate high quality tunable filters and tunable non-reciprocal components such as circulators which were previously only available in large, heavy, and costly magnetic structures.
Wang, H. Zheng, Z. Ma, S. Prasertchoung, M. Wuttig, R. Droopad, J. Yu, K. Eisenbeiser, and R. Huang, X. Fu, X. Zhao, and W. Mueller, T. Boescke, U. Schroeder, S. Mueller, D. Braeuhaus, U. Boettger, L. Frey, and T. Wang, Z. Zhou, S. Behugn, M. Liu, H. Lin, X. Yang, Y. Gao, T.
Nan, X. Xing, Z. Hu, and N. Kumbhar, M. Mahadik, V. Mohite, Y. Hunge, K. Rajpure, and C. Bhosale, Effect of Ni content on the structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of spray deposited Ni-Zn ferrite thin films, Mater. Research Bull. Li, Q. Xue, H. Du, J. Xu, Q. Li, Z. Shi, X. Gao, M. Liu, T. Nan, Z. Hu, N. Sun, and W.
Shao, Large E-field tunability of magnetic anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance frequency of co-sputtered Fe50CoB film, J. Kovachev and J. Wesselinowa, Influence of substrate effects on the properties of multiferroic thin films, J. Matter 21, Sun and G. Srinivasan, Voltage control of magnetism in multi-ferroic heterostructures and devices, Spin 2, , World Scientific Publishing Company.
Vaz, J. Hoffman, C. Ahn, and R. Currently the solvent most widely used is N-methyl pyrrolidone NMP. The electrode materials are mixed with polymer binder and additives and NMP to form a slurry that is spread on a current collector foil and then dried. NMP which is first added to form the slurry and then removed by drying has flammable vapors, necessitating the use of explosion proof equipment, and is toxic.
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